Metrology aspects (sampling, storage, transportation, and measurement) of radon in water
Background: Radon can enter homes using water during normal household activities, and it contributes to increasing the radon concentration of the adjacent space. Because of its gaseous form, it can easily escape during one of the procedures preceding its measurement (sampling, transport, and storage) and during its measurement resulting in its underestimation, which could lead to an underestimated dose calculation.
Objectives: This study focused on quantifying and evaluating radon losses during sampling, transporting, and storing radon in water samples. Also, in terms of measuring radon in water activity concentration, two emanometry methods were compared to the direct method of gamma-ray spectrometry.
Design and Methods: In terms of sampling, two methods were examined and compared. Road transport effect on radon losses was studied by measuring the radon in water concentration of radon-rich samples before and after their transportation at different ambient temperatures. Different materials (PET, glass, aluminum) were examined for their radon tightness by repetitive measurements and interpolation of the recorded data. Also, the effect of ambient temperature (1 to 40°C) on radon losses was studied during the storage phase. To compare radon in water measuring methods, water from the original bottle was poured carefully into the different sample containers that each method requires and measured by each method.
Results and Conclusions: Sampling is the factor that can cause the most significant radon losses. Radon tightness investigation of different materials showed no significant differences in their ability to preserve radon inside the container, as their fitting curves followed the literature radon decay curve. Ambient temperature (1 to 40 °C) did not appear to affect radon losses during the storage phase. Unlike the storage phase, significant radon losses were observed during road transport at ambient temperatures of 31°C and above. Therefore, measures should be taken to avoid radon losses for ambient temperatures of 31°C and above when road transport is considered (e.g., using thermally insulated boxes and cooling elements). From the comparison of the two emanometry methods with gamma-ray spectrometry, it was found that all methods provide equal results within standard uncertainties.
- Bé M-M, Chisté V, Dulieu C, Browne E, Chechev V, Kuzmenko N, et al. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 4-A = 133 to 252), Monographie BIPM-5, Vol. 4. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures; Sèvres, France; 2008.
- Kitto ME, Kuhland MK, Dansereau RE. Direct comparison of three methods for the determination of radon in well water. Health Phys 1996; 7(3): 358–62. doi: 10.1097/00004032-199603000-00005
- Fonollosa E, Peñalver A, Borrull F, Aguilar C. Radon in spring waters in the south of Catalonia. J Environ Radioact 2016; 151: 275–81. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.10.019
- Chen J. A discussion on issues with radon in drinking water. Radiat Protect Dosimet. 2019; 185(4): 526–31. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncz035
- Jobbágy V, Stroh H, Marissens G, Hult M. Comprehensive study on the technical aspects of sampling, transporting and measuring radon-in-water. J Environ Radioact. 2019; 197: 30–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.11.012
- ISO 13164. Water quality – Radon-222 – Part 1–3. Geneva; 2013.
- ISO 5667-1. Water quality – Sampling – Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques. International Organization for Standardization; Geneva; 2020.
- Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire. IRSN Proficiency Test «Measurement of Radon-222 activity in water ». Available from: https://www.fishersci.fr/shop/products/aluminum-bottles-tamper-evident- [cited 10 Nov 2021].
- Lucchetti C, de Simone G, Galli G, Tuccimei P. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles. Radiat Meas. 2016; 84: 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2015.11.001
- Vesterbacka P, Pettersson H, Hanste UM, Jakobson E, Kolstad T, Roos P, et al. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater. Appl Radiat Isotopes. 2010; 68(1): 214–18. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.10.008
- WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-water quality. 4th ed. incorporating the 1st attendum. World Health Organization; Geneva; 2017.
- Louizi A, Nikolopoulos D, Koukouliou V, Kehagia K. Study of a Greek area with enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Radiat Protect Dosimetry; 2003; 106. [cited 15 November 2021]. Available from: http://rpd.oxfordjournals.org/
- Otton J. The geology of radon. USGS Publications Warehouse; Washington, DC; 1992.
- Amrani D, Cherouati DE, Cherchali MEH. Groundwater radon measurements in Algeria. J Environ Radioact. 2000; 51: 173–180. doi: 10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00121-6
- Saphymo. AlphaGuard AquaKIT Product Manual. 2010.
- Kotrappa P, Jester WA. Electret ion chamber radon monitors measure dissolved 222Rn in water. Health Phys 1993; 64(4): 397–405. doi: 10.1097/00004032-199304000-00007
- EURATOM. Council Directive 2013/51/Euratom of 22 October 2013 laying down requirements for the protection of the health of the general public with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Union; Luxembourg; 2013.
- MATLAB version 188.8.131.527703 (R2020b). Natick, MA: The Mathworks Inc; 2020.
- Kitto M, Haines D, Fielman E, Menia T, Bari A. Assessment of the E-PERM radon-in-water measurement kit. American Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 AARST International Symposium. Jacksonville, FL; 2008.
- Tai-Pow J, Lee J, Bitanga JM, Gilmer K. The determination of dissolved radon in water supplies by the E-PERM system (Electret ionization chamber). Int J Radiat Appl lnstrum A. 1992; 43(1): 95–101. doi: 10.1016/0883-2889(92)90082-p